Correction of the surface water formation parameter used in a malaria transmission model and future malaria projections for Africa

Inna Syafarina, Arnida Lailatul Latifah, Yosuke Miura, Tomoko Nitta, Kei Yoshimura
Received 2021/08/11, Accepted 2021/10/13, Published 2021/12/04

Inna Syafarina1), Arnida Lailatul Latifah1), Yosuke Miura2), Tomoko Nitta3), Kei Yoshimura3)

1) Research Center for Informatics, National Research and Innovation Agency, Indonesia
2) Meteorological Research Institute, Japan
3) Institute of Industrial Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Japan

The surface water formation parameter (Kw) currently used in malaria transmission models can dramatically affect larval development calculations. However, the parameter is often unrealistic due to the unavailability of observational datasets. This research presents an adjusted Kw by reference to an entomological inoculation rate (EIR) over the period 1983–2006, tuning the parameter by minimizing root mean square deviation of the water fraction from model calculations and satellite observations from 2014–2018. A scaling factor, topography factor, and inverse distance weighting were used to reduce the gap between macro- and microscales and to derive the appropriate spatial distribution of Kw for a projection period from 2020–2100. The average EIR over the projection period under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios 2.6, 7.0, and 8.5 in West Africa decreased by –29%, –43% and –35%, respectively, from the historical period. By contrast, for central southern Africa, the respective values increased by 3%, 6%, and 29% from the historical period. The reduced EIRs under RCPs 7.0 and 8.5 in West Africa were mostly affected by temperature, while monthly mean precipitation triggered a decrease in EIRs under RCP 2.6. By contrast, consecutive wet days have the most influential role in increasing the EIR in central southern Africa under all RCP scenarios. This research will help policy-makers eradicate vulnerable malaria areas and improve related policy design.

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Copyright (c) 2021 The Author(s) CC-BY 4.0

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