Synergies overcome trade-offs between climate policy and water-related SDG targets

Andi Besse Rimba, Yukiko Hirabayashi, Yuzuru Kawamitsu, Taikan Oki, Masashi Kiguchi, Daisuke Tokuda, Naota Hanasaki, Zhipin Ai, Toshichika Iizumi, Noriko Nozaki, Wonsik Kim
Received 14 November, 2023
Accepted 6 February, 2024
Published online 7 June, 2024

Andi Besse Rimba1), Yukiko Hirabayashi1), Yuzuru Kawamitsu1), Taikan Oki2), Masashi Kiguchi2), Daisuke Tokuda2), Naota Hanasaki3), Zhipin Ai4), Toshichika Iizumi5), Noriko Nozaki5), Wonsik Kim5)

1) Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan
2) The University of Tokyo, Japan
3) National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan
4) Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
5) National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Japan

The United Nations has reported that the world is off track to achieve water sustainability and this has been exacerbated by climate change. Studies indicate that water-related sustainable development goals (SDGs) have significant synergies and trade-offs involving various sectors. We measure the synergies and trade-offs between climate actions (mitigation and adaptation) and five water-related SDG targets based on a global numerical simulation driven by climate change and socioeconomic scenarios. We found that synergies outweigh trade-offs in all regions regarding water-related targets, with an approximately five-fold difference in the globally affected population. The main trade-off source is increased water use due to economic development in Africa and Central/South America, and increased irrigation water if bio-energy crop production is enhanced in Africa, suggesting that more coordinated policy-making is needed between climate action and water management.

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Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) CC-BY 4.0

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